New security clearances for judges implemented

| The Slovak Spectator | 2. Oct 2015 at 6:30  |  Radka Minarechová |

Courts struggle with a backlog of cases. Source: SME

THE FIRST set of judicial candidates that underwent controversial security clearances that came as part of a 2014 constitutional amendment, stood before the Judicial Council on September 28. 

Experts remain divided on the new measure.

The Judicial Council, the top judicial body overseeing the operation of Slovakia’s courts, checked the first 19 candidates who have already been screened by the National Security Office (NBÚ), approving 17.

“One candidate did not fulfil the conditions of judges’ competencies, while in one case we stopped the discussion and asked for additional information,” Judicial Council Chairwoman Jana Bajánková said, as quoted by the Sme daily. 

The court which nominated the failed candidate will most probably have to start a new selection process, she added, before declining to comment further citing the closed session and confidential NBÚ documents involved. 

Dana Bystrianska, head of the Association of Judges of Slovakia, says she has mixed feelings from the session. Though the candidates had been initially asked to answer questions in written form for the NBÚ questionnaire, they did so only verbally before the Judicial Council.

“It seems that there is actually a big time pressure and small space for the candidates to focus on questions in the questionnaire,” she told The Slovak Spectator.

COMMUNIQUÉ from the conference “Together for Effective and More Reliable judiciary” which took place on 19 November 2014 in Bratislava

Conference was held under auspices of the President Andrej Kiska, and with participation of the Justice Minister Tomáš Borec, the Chairman of the Parliamentary Constitutional Committee Róbert Madej, members of the Parliament, the Ministry of Justice, judges of different levels and from various regions of the Slovak Republic, significant judges from the Czech Republic, representatives of the NGO sector, and the diplomatic corps.


The following conclusions resulted from the conference:


  • The following three conditions are inevitable for functioning Rule of Law in Slovakia: co-operation of all three powers of the state, their sincere attempt to reach such goal, and their mutual respect.


  • Legislative and executive powers should put the judiciary to the top priorities on their agenda and should not solve the problems of the judiciary with populism or as part of the political competition. They should remedy the main causes of low electivity of courts which are, mainly, uneven loading of courts with court litigations and disproportionate distribution of judges between courts; inefficient legislation; insufficient amount of assistants of judges with legal education, and low qualification of the court administrative staff.


  • Trust of the public is the most valuable merit that the judiciary possess. Strengthening of the trust is primarily a task for the judges themselves who should take over the accountability for their work, for their profession, and for the moral values connected to it. Apart from good and persuasive judicial decisions, the basis for the trustworthiness of courts is the fulfilment of the legitimate request of the public that a judge should not only be professional but also moral authority. 


In Bratislava, on the 19th November 2014


Conference was organised by the association of judges “For Open Judiciary” with support of the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Open Society Foundation and VIA IURIS.

Position CCJE - judges review






Strasbourg, 1 July 2014







on certain provisions of the

Constitutional Act of 4 June 2014

amending and supplementing the Constitution of the Slovak Republic


Document prepared by the Bureau

of the Consultative Council of European Judges



The Slovak member of the Consultative Council of European Judges (CCJE) informed the CCJE in a letter dated 11 June 2014 about a Constitutional Act on amending and supplementing the Constitution of the Slovak Republic, which had been adopted on 4 June 2014. She considered that these amendments infringe fundamental principles regarding the status of judges and their independence. We understand that these concerns are also shared by the Plenary Assembly of the Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic and by the European Association of Judges. The Slovak member of the CCJE claims that politicians had announced that a “radical cleaning of the Slovak Judiciary” should take place.  The amendments order that all judges will have to undergo a “security reliability clearance”, which will be based on information gathered by police and by the National Security Office. She asks the CCJE for its opinion on whether this amendment of the constitution is in accordance with the international standards concerning the functioning of the judiciary in a democratic state.

Position of the judges of the Slovak Republic to the June 4, 2104 amendment of the Slovak Constitution

4. Update


Position of the judges of the Slovak Republic to the June 4, 2104 amendment of the Slovak Constitution

On June 4, 2014 the National Council of the Slovak Republic approved an amendment to the Slovak Constitution. This amendment introduces the possibility to recall judges from their office by means other than a valid convicting judgement or a decision by the disciplinary panel.

Pursuant to Article 147 part 1 of the Constitution: “The President of the Slovak Republic shall also recall a judge from office if the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic shall propose so; shall the judge fail to meet the prerequisites of the judge´s eligibility that guarantee proper execution of the office based on a valid resolution of the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic pursuant to Article 154d, part 1 or based on a valid ruling by the Constitutional Court that has dismissed the complaint pursuant to Article 154d, part 2.”

Pursuant to Article 154d, part 1 of the Slovak Constitution: The prerequisites for a judge´s eligibility that guarantee proper performance of the office also apply to judges appointed to office before September 1, 2014. Pursuant to the first sentence, the position on the eligibility of judges appointed to the office before September 2014 is taken through a resolution of  the Judicial Council, based on the documents collected by the state bodies securing the protection of confidential information and the judge´s statement. The details of the decision-making processes of the Judicial Council whether the prerequisites for the judge´s eligibility that guarantee proper execution of the office were fulfilled, including the form in which the judge may make a statement regarding the documents shall be established by law.“

The implementing bills to the amended Constitution (that have not yet been passed) propose that the documentation requested by the Slovak Judicial Council shall be collected by the National Security Office (hereinafter only the “NSO“), based on the clearance of individual judges by the Police Corps, Slovak Intelligence Service or the Military Intelligence Service, along with information from other state bodies, legal entities and natural persons.

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